When does social work begin?（）
A.around the time of the industrial revolution
A.around the time of the industrial revolution
(英译汉)There is no separation for you between work and home.
Even when at home, your work is the top priority.
You are totally committed and driven to work, and your happiness is found in your work.
Work always seems to take precedence over family and leisure time.
You have no social life other than work-related events.
ged above 60 increased. Demand for elderly care services in China will continue to rise due to the increasing aging population. The number of elderly people aged above 60 was over 200 million in 2012, and will be 300 million in 2025 and 400 million in 2034, according to experts.
It will be a tough challenge for China to deal with, due to the increasing rates of urbanization and a decreasing birth rate. The Chinese people will be facing a big challenge if we do not have enough money when we get older.
The United Nations defines an aging society as one that has 10 percent of its population at or above the age of 60.
When most developed countries were classed as an aging society, their gross domestic product (GDP) per capita stood at between 5,000 to 10,000 U.S. dollars or above. However, China became an aging society in 2001, and its GDP per capita was only 1,000 U.S. dollars. It was 6,000 U.S. dollars in 2012. China’s economic foundation for an elderly society is fragile.
On Sept. 13.2013, the State Council issued a guideline to speed up the development of China’s elderly care services, hoping to complete a social care network for its elderly by 2025.
1.What does the word “decreasing” in Paragraph 2 mean？ ()
A.It means “falling”
B.It means “rising”
C.It means “peaking”
2.What does GDP stands for？ ()
A.Government Document Publishing Service
B.Gross domestic product.
C.General domestic product.
3.What was China’s GDP per capita in 2012？ ()
A.It was 1,000 U.S. dollars
B.It was 6,000 U.S. dollars
C.It was 10,000 U.S. dollars
4.Why is China’s economic foundation for an elderly society fragile？()
A.Because of its increasing aging population and its low GDP per capita
B.Because when China was classed as an aging society, our gross domestic product (GDP) per capita is high
C.Because of its decreasing aging population and its high GDP per capita
5.The passage implies that().
A.Chinese government can do nothing to deal with the challenge of the increasing aging population
B.Chinese people don’t need enough money when they get older
C.The Chinese social care network is expected to be completed in the near future
Up to now，the association has carried out a series of volunteer activities. Sunshine Dancers is a non-profit program which was started in the Muslim primary school by the association. By hiring professional dance teachers，the association helps children from poor families to realize their dancing dream for free. Another major program run by CYVA is Protecting and Promoting the Rights of China’s Young Migrants(保护并增进青年农民工权益工程). It aims to improve education for migrant youth in order to prevent their early entry into the labor force. Teams of university volunteers will be recruited and trained to provide after-school tutoring to junior high students from migrant schools. 6. What does CYVA stand for？
A. Chinese Young Volunteers Association
B. China Youth Volunteer Association
C. China Youth Volunteering Association
7. When was CYVA founded？
A. In 1994.
B. In 1996.
C. In 1998.
8. Who founded CYVA？
A. A group of local teachers.
B. Young people who are willing to devote themselves to social services.
C. The local government.
9. What is the goal of CYVA？
A. To improve the overall quality of youth.
B. To contribute to the general progress of economic and social development.
C. Both A and B.
10. What are the programs carried out by CYVA？
A. Sunshine Dancers.
B. Protecting and Promoting the Rights of China’s Young Migrants.
C. Both A and B.
Evidence suggests a genetic component to shyness. Studies on the biological basis of shyness have shown that shyness in adults can often be traced as far back ns the age of three. A Harvard study of two-year olds showed that, even at that age, widely different personality types can be recognized: roughly 25 percent of children are bold, sociable, and spontaneous regardless of the novelty of the situation, while 20 percent are shy and restrained in new situations. The remaining 55 percent of newborns fall between the extremes of shyness and boldness. These two basic temperaments were also recognized in studies examining infants as young as four months old. As children grow, their shy temperament tends to display itself in predictable ways: for example, in play groups at age seven, shy children play by themselves, while more outgoing children seek to play together in groups. Evidence of a genetic predisposition for shyness is found in parents and grandparents of shy infants who report childhood shyness more often than relatives of children who are not shy. Further evidence for a congenital link to shyness is found In studies that show that identical twins (who have identical genes) are more likely to be shy than fraternal twins (who are no more alike than other siblings).
Research shows, however, that 25 percent of the time genetic predisposition to shyness does not develop into shyness. Some researchers believe that a shy temperament may require environmental triggers, such as insecurity of attachment in the form. of difficult relationships with parents, family conflict or chaos, frequent criticism, a dominating older sibling, or a stressful school environment.
Research has also identified a strong cultural link to shyness. In the United States, shyness surveys typically show that shyness is highest among Asian Americans and lowest among Jewish Americans. Using culturally sensitive adaptations of the Stanford Shyness Inventory, researchers in eight countries administered the inventory to groups of 18 to 21 year olds. Results showed that a large proportion of participants in all cultures reported experiencing shyness to a considerable degree--from 31 percent in Israel to 57 percent in Japan. in Mexico, Germany, India, and Canada, shyness levels were close to the U. S. figure of 40 percent. In all countries, shyness is perceived as more negative than positive, with 60 percent or more considering shyness to be a problem. There is no gender difference in reported shyness, but males tend to conceal their shyness because it is considered a feminine Wait in most countries. For example, in Mexico, males report shyness less often than females do.
When shyness is intense, it can often lead to social anxiety disorder or to avoidant personality disorder, both characterized by the avoidance of interpersonal contacts accompanied by significant fears of embarrass
A．discomfort in social situations
B．the preference for loneliness
D．fear social encounters
Although groups often may increase the motivation of their members to deal with problems, there is a counterbalancing need to contend with conflicts arising among members of a group-and to give it coherent directions. Problem solving is facilitated by the presence of an effective leader who not only provides direction but permits the orderly, constructive expression of a variety of opinions; much of the leader's effort may be devoted to resolving differences. Success in problem solving also depends on the distribution of ability within a group. Solutions simply may reflect the presence of an outstanding individual who might perform. even better by himself.
Although groups may reach a greater number of correct solutions, or may require less time to discover an answer, their net man-hour efficiency is typically lower than that achieved by skilled individuals working alone.
A process called brainstorming has been offered as a method of facilitating the production of new solutions to problems. In brainstorming, a problem is presented to a group of people who then proceed to offer whatever they can think of, regardless of quality and with as few inhibitions as possible. Theoretically these unrestricted suggestions increase the probability that at least some superior solutions will emerge. Nevertheless, studies show that when individuals work alone under similar conditions, performance tends to proceed more efficiently than it does in groups.
Under special circumstances, however, a group may solve problems more effectively than does a reason ably competent individual. Group members may contribute different (and essential) resources to a solution that no individual can readily achieve alone; such pooling of information and skills can make group achievements superior in dealing with selected problems. Sometimes social demands may require group agreement on a single alternative, as in formulating national economic or military policies under democratic governments. When only one among several alternative solutions is correct, even if a group requires more time, it has a higher probability of identifying the right one than does an individual alone.
In this passage, the author argues that thinking in groups ______.
A．is the best way to solve any problem
B．is by no means useful in problem-solving
C．may result in effective problem-solving under certain circumstances
D．will inevitably produce greater efficiency in problem solving than individual thinking
The worker and employee are anxious, not only because they might find themselves out of a job; they are anxious also because they are unable to acquire any real satisfaction of interesting life. They live and die without ever having confronted the fundamental realities of human existence as emotionally and intellectually independent and productive human beings.
Those higher up on the social ladder are no less anxious. Their lives are no less empty than those of their subordinates. They are even more insecure in some respects. They are in a highly competitive race. To be promoted or to fall behind is not a matter of salary but even more a matter of self-respect. When they apply for their first job, they are tested for intelligence as well as for the right mixture of submissiveness and independence. From the moment on they are tested again and again-by the psychologists, for whom testing is a big business, and by their superiors, who judge their behavior, sociability, capacity to get along, etc. This constant need to prove that one is as good as or better than one ’s fellow-competitor creates constant anxiety and stress, the very causes of unhappiness and illness.
Am I suggesting that we should return to the preindustrial mode of production or to nineteenth-century “free enterprise” capitalism？ Certainly not.Problems the never solved by returning to a stage which one has already outgrown. I suggest transforming our social system form, a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maxima, production and consumption are ends in themselves, into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities-those of all love and of reason-are the aims of social arrangements. Production and consumption should serve only as means to this end and should be prevented from ruling man.
By “a well-oiled cog in the machinery ” the author intends to deliver the idea that man is ____.
A.a necessary part of the society though each individual ’s function is negligible
B.working in complete harmony with the rest of the society
C.an unimportant part in comparison with the rest of the society
D.a humble component of the society, especially when working smoothly
The real cause of the anxiety of the workers and employees is that ____.A.they are likely to lose their jobs
B.they have no genuine satisfaction or interest in life
C.they are faced with the fundamental realities of human existence
D.they are deprived of their individuality and independence
From the passage we can conclude that real happiness of life belongs to those ____.A.who are at the bottom of the society
B.who are higher up in their social status
C.who prove better than their fellow-competitors
D.who could dip fir away from this competitive world
To solve the present social problems the author puts forward a suggestion that we should ____.A.resort to the production mode of our ancestors
B.offer higher wages to the workers and employees
C.enable man to fully develop his potentialities
D.take the fundamental realities for granted
The author’s attitude towards industrialism might best be summarized as one of ____.A.approval
Roles affect us as sets of norms that define our duties the actions others can legitimately insist that we perform, and our fight the actions we can legitimately insist that others perform. Every role has at least one reciprocal role attached to it; the fights of one role are the duties of the other role. As we have noted, we have a social niche for the sick. Sick people have fights our society says they do not have to function in usual ways until they get well. But sick people also have the duty to get well and "not enjoy themselves too much." The sick role also entails an appeal to another party the physician. The physician must perceive the patient as trying to get well this is the physician’s right and the patient’s duty. And the patient must see the doctor as sincere the patient’s fight and the physician’s duty. It should come as no surprise that the quality of medical care falters when patient and physician role expectations break down.
One way that people are linked in groups is through networks of reciprocal roles. Role relationships tie us to one another because the rights of one end of the relationship are the duties of the other. People experience these stable relationships as social structure a hospital, a college, a family, a gang, an army, and so on.
If your are a patient, you take on all the following roles EXCEPT the role as______.
A．a friend of your fellow patients
B．a staff member of the hospital
C．the receiver of the treatment
D．a buyer of medicines
Amphibious Architecture: Flood-Proof Home Designs
Instead of trying to beat back the rising flood, innovative amphibious buildings can adapt to the rising flood. These buildings are ready for whatever Mother Nature might throw at them– even 10-foot floodwaters. Let's take a look at just two of them.
The UK's First Amphibious House
The UK's first amphibious house is located on the Thames River. And the first amphibious building in Britain will be completed soon. Baca Architects designed this home for a couple who wanted to live on a flood-prone island, an island easy to be attacked by floods, in the Thames River. This building is equipped with a terraced landscape. And this terraced landscape acts as an early warning system when the waters are rising. The terraces will be filled with water before the ‘wet dock’ under the house does, and then the home itself will slowly rise to stay above the water.
Solar Powered Floating School in Nigeria
Residents of Makoko in Nigeria have been building houses on stilts for generations. People there go from one house to another by canoe. As sea levels are rising, officials threaten to tear down the entire community. If these houses are tore down, 250,000 people will be homeless and have to look for a new place to live. Architects found a solution in floating structures with improved sanitation conditions. The first completed example is a three-storey solar-powered school.
This amazing floating school addresses social, physical and ecological needs. Built on top of 256 recycled blue barrels, the school buildings are made of triangular bamboo and wood. Makoko's residents made full use of their skills when building these structures. With three levels, the solar-powered high school has room for 100 local kids and recycles rainwater to flush the toilets. And the cost for the whole school structures was under $7,000.
1.Innovative amphibious buildings have adaptation to the rising flood.
2.The first amphibious building in Britain has been completed.
3.250,000 residents of Makoko in Nigeria will be homeless if officials tear down their houses.
4.The first completed floating school has three floors.
5.In the opinion of the writer, the cost for the floating school was quite high.
"Family" is of course an elastic word．And in different countries it has different meanings．Butwhen British people say that their society is based on family life, they are thinking of "family" in itsnarrow, peculiarly European sense of mother, father and children living together in their own houseas an economic and social unit．Thus, every British marriage indicates the beginning of a new andindependent family--hence the tremendous importance of marriage in British life．For both man andwoman, marriage means leaving one&39; s parents and starting one&39; s own life．The man&39; s first dutywill then be to his wife, and the wife&39; s to her husband．He will be entirely responsible for her finan-cial support, and she for the running of the new home．Their children will be their common responsi-bility and their alone．Neither the wife&39; s parents nor the husband&39; s, nor their brothers or sisters,aunts or uncles, have any right to interfere with them--they are their own masters．
Readers of novels like Jane Austen&39; s Pride and Prejudice will know that in former times, mar-riage among wealthy families were arranged by the girl&39; s parents, that is, it was the parents&39; duty tofind a suitable husband for their daughter, preferably a rich one, and by skillful encouragement tolead him eventually to ask their permission to marry her．Until that time, the girl was protected andmaintained in the parents&39; home, and the fmancial relief of getting rid of her could be seen in theirgiving the newly married pair a sum of money called a dowry(嫁妆)．It is very different today．
Most girls of today get a job when they leave school and become financially independent before theirmarriage．This has had two results．A girl chooses her own husband, and she gets no dowry．Everycoin has two sides; independence for girls is no exception．But it may be a good thing for all of thegirls, as their social status are much higher and they are no longer the subordinate(部下，下级) oftheir parents and husbands．
What does the author mean by "Family is of course an elastic word"？ 查看材料
A.Different families have different ways of life．
B.Different definitions could be given to the word．
C.Different nations have different families．
D.Different times produce different families．
Meaningfulness affects memory at all levels.Information that does not make any sense to you is difficult to remember.There are several ways in which we can make material more meaningful.Many people, for instance, learn a rhyme to help them remember.Do you know the rhyme "Thirty days has September, April, June, and November..."？ It helps many people remember which months of the year have 30 day s.
Organization also makes a difference in our ability to remember.How useful would a library be if the books were kept in random order？ Material that is organized is better remembered than jumbled information.One example of organization is chunking.C hunking consists of grouping separate bits of information.For example, the number 4671363 is more easily remembered if it is chunked as 467, 13, 63.Categorizing is another means of organization.Suppose you are asked to remember the following list of wor ds: man, bench, dog, desk, woman, horse, child, cat, chair.Many people will group the words into similar categories and remember them as follows: man, woman, child; cat, dog, horse; bench, chair, desk.Needless to say, the second list can be remembered mo re easily than the first one.
Association refers to taking the material we want to remember and relating it to something we remember accurately.In memorizing a number, you might try to associate it with familiar numbers or events.For example, the heigh t of Mount Fuji in Japan -12,389 feet -might be remembered using the following associations: 12 is the number of months in the year, and 389 is the number of days in a year (365) added to the number of months twice (24).
The last principle is visualizati on.Research has shown striking improvements in many types of memory tasks when people are asked to visualize the items to be remembered.In one study, subjects in one group were asked to learn some words using imagery, while the second group used repetiti on to learn the words.Those using imagery remembered 80 to 90 percent of the words, compared with 30 to 40 percent of the words for those who memorized by repetition.Thus forming an integrated image with all the information placed in a single mental pict ure can help us to preserve a memory.
1.What kind of information is easy for us to remember？()
A.Information that does not make any sense to us
B.Information that we are not familiar with
C.Information that is meaningful to us
D.Information that we are not interested in
2.Which of the following pairs are rhymes？()
3.The second list of words in para.3 is organized according to().
B.the word category
C.th e first letters of words
4.Books are kept in a library().
A.according to their size
B.in random order
C.in a jumbled way
D.in different categories
5.What method can better help form. a whole mental picture about the ti ngs to be remembered？()